British Butterflies (1855)


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by James Duncan, Sir William Jardine (editor)

Malaysian Naturalist 24— Rippon R. Rothschild W. A revision of the Papilios of the eastern hemisphere, exclusive of Africa. Novitates Zoologicae 2: — Rumbucher K. Butterflies of the World. Bauer E. Salmon M. With Additional Material by Marren P. Tsao W. Zoological Studies — Tsukada E. Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. Plapac Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

Vollenhoven S. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 3: 67— Walker F. Description of a variety of Ornithoptera brookiana female. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London: 75— Article Tools Print this article. Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Finding References. Impact Factor 1. Font Size. Journal Help. Open Journal Systems. Hide Show all. User Username Password Remember me. Abstract The birdwing butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana Wallace, is a well-known conservation icon, yet questions remain about the infraspecific status of regional populations. Wing characters and measurements of specimens from the two regions were therefore examined quantitatively using discriminant function and correspondence analyses.

Eastern Peninsular specimens differ on average from Sumatran specimens in having more extensive green, especially in the female. This is reflected in many of the measurements and characters analysed. Females from the Peninsula also have a characteristically blacker upperside ground colour in which the outer areas of both wings barely contrast with the black veins and forewing cell.


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Aurivillius Aurivillius, C. This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Heteropterinae : Vol. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Parnassius apollo : Vol. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Lasiommata megera : Vol. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Pyrgus armoricanus : Vol.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Apatura ilia , pp. Behr Behr, H. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Limenitidinae : Vol. The Irish Naturalists' Journal. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Papilio machaon ssp. The Entomologist. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Colias alfacariensis ] This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Colias alfacariensis ] Berkenhout Berkenhout, J.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Aphantopus hyperantus ], [ Hipparchia semele ], [ Lycaena phlaeas ], [ Pieris brassicae ], [ Pyrgus malvae ] Billberg Billberg, G. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Callophrys , p. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Euphydryas aurinia : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Danainae , p.

This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [ Brassolini : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Apaturinae , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Anthocharis , Plate 5 ] Bowden Bowden, S. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Pieris napi ssp. Edition 2. Brakefield Brakefield, P. The Ecology of Butterflies in Britain.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Coenonympha tullia , pp. Brown Brown, T. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Argynnis aglaja ], [ Danaus plexippus ], [ Parnassius apollo ], [ Pieris brassicae ], [ Polyommatus icarus ] Buckler Buckler, W. Buckler Buckler, W. Buddle Buddle, Revd. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Argynnis aglaja ] Burmeister Burmeister, H. Burmeister ; traduit de l'allemant par E. This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Pyrginae : Vol.

This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Theclinae , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Cacyreus , p. Catlow Catlow, M. Chalmers-Hunt Chalmers-Hunt, J. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Anthocharis cardamines ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [ Luehdorfiini : Vol. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Boloria dia ], [ Lampides boeticus ], [ Papilio machaon ], [ Polyommatus bellargus ] Coleman Coleman, W.

Coleman Coleman, W.

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British Butterflies – Illustrations by W.H. Lizars circa 1855

Edition 3. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Thymelicus lineola ] Cooke Cooke, B. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Erebia epiphron ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Caligo illioneus , p.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Satyrium pruni ], [ Thymelicus acteon ] Dale Dale, C. Dalman Dalman, J. Svenska Vetenskaps akademiens Handlingar. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Aglais , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Apatura ilia ssp. A Microgeographical Race. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Hipparchia semele ssp. H and Shreeve, T. Doherty Doherty, W. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Phengaris , p.

Donovan Donovan, E.

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This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Coenonympha tullia ], [ Phengaris arion ] Donovan Donovan, E. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Argynnis paphia ], [ Lycaena dispar ] Donovan Donovan, E.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Leptidea sinapis ], [ Vanessa atalanta ] Donovan Donovan, E. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Erebia aethiops ] Donovan Donovan, E.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Satyrium w-album ] Donovan Donovan, E. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Aricia artaxerxes ], [ Pyrgus malvae ] Doubleday Doubleday, E. This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [ Eumaeini : Vol.

This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Opsiphanes : Vol. Drury a Drury, D. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Hylephila phyleus : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Heteropterus , p. Dunbar Dunbar, D. Duncan Duncan, J. Duponchel Duponchel, P. This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [ Parnassiinae : Vol. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Anthocharis cardamines ], [ Melitaea cinxia ], [ Vanessa atalanta ] Eecke van Eecke, R.

Zoologische Mededeelingen. Eltringham Eltringham, H. Emmet Emmet, A. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Argynnis aglaja , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Erebia aethiops : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Melitaea didyma : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Carcharodus alceae : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Argynnis paphia ssp.

This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Saliana : Vol. C Systema entomologiae: sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Argynnis cybele , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Coenonympha tullia ssp.

This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Junonia villida : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Hesperia , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Lycaena phlaeas ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Apatura , p.

Wiener entomologische monatschrift. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Opsiphanes tamarindi , p. Ford Ford, E. Fox Fox, R. Freyer Freyer, C. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Euchloe simplonia : Vol.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Boloria selene : Vol. Frohawk Frohawk, F. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Carcharodus alceae ] Frohawk Frohawk, F. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Gonepteryx rhamni ], [ Nymphalis antiopa ] Frohawk Frohawk, F. Fruhstorfer Fruhstorfer, H. Entomologische Zeitschrift. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Pararge aegeria : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Phengaris arion ssp.

This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Papilio machaon ssp. Entomologische Zeitung. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Celastrina argiolus : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Cupido minimus , p.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Satyrium w-album ], [ Thymelicus lineola ] Gardiner Gardiner, B. Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Colias croceus , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Pararge aegeria ssp.

Goodson Goodson, A. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Euphydryas aurinia , p. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Zerynthia rumina , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Maniola jurtina ssp.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Polyommatus icarus : Vol. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Lycaena dispar ] Greene Greene, Rev. Grote Grote, A. This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [ Riodinidae , p. Roemer-Museum, Hildesh. This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [ Maniolini : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Colias croceus ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Dryas : Vol.

This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Strymon , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Aporia , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Hypanartia : Vol. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Leptidea sinapis , Plate Fig.

Harris Harris, M. Edition 1. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Aglais urticae ], [ Aphantopus hyperantus ], [ Aporia crataegi ], [ Argynnis adippe ], [ Argynnis aglaja ], [ Argynnis paphia ], [ Boloria euphrosyne ], [ Boloria selene ], [ Callophrys rubi ], [ Coenonympha pamphilus ], [ Erynnis tages ], [ Euphydryas aurinia ], [ Hamearis lucina ], [ Hipparchia semele ], [ Lasiommata megera ], [ Leptidea sinapis ], [ Lycaena phlaeas ], [ Melanargia galathea ], [ Melitaea athalia ], [ Melitaea cinxia ], [ Nymphalis antiopa ], [ Ochlodes sylvanus ], [ Pararge aegeria ], [ Pyrgus malvae ], [ Pyronia tithonus ], [ Thymelicus sylvestris ] Harris a Harris, M.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Argynnis paphia ], [ Callophrys rubi ], [ Hesperia comma ], [ Polyommatus icarus ], [ Pyronia tithonus ] Harris b Harris, M. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Aricia agestis ], [ Callophrys rubi ], [ Celastrina argiolus ], [ Colias hyale ], [ Hipparchia semele ], [ Issoria lathonia ], [ Plebejus argus ], [ Polyommatus bellargus ], [ Polyommatus coridon ], [ Satyrium w-album ], [ Vanessa atalanta ] Harris Miss Harris Coloured Drawings of British Butterflies From the Collection of Mr.

Harrison Harrison, J. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Hipparchia semele ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Coenonympha pamphilus ssp. H Observations on the ranges, habitats and variation of the Rhopalocera of the Outer Hebrides. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Coenonympha pamphilus ssp. Haworth Haworth, A. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. Hemming Hemming, F. This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [ Lysandra : Vol.

Entomologist's Gazette. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Polygonia c-album : Vol. G and Herbst, W. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Vanessa indica : Vol. Versuch einer systematischen Anordnung der Schmetterlinge. This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [ Elymniini , p.

Hewitson Hewitson, W. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Rapala manea , p. Higgins Higgins, L. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Araschnia levana ], [ Argynnis pandora ], [ Boloria dia ], [ Carcharodus alceae ], [ Gonepteryx cleopatra ] Holland Holland, W. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Vanessa virginiensis ] Holmes Holmes, G.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Parnassius apollo , p. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Pararge aegeria ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Erynnis tages ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Gonepteryx rhamni ssp.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Aphantopus hyperantus , pp. Humphreys Humphreys, H. Jermyn Jermyn, L. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Boloria euphrosyne ], [ Boloria selene ], [ Colias hyale ], [ Erynnis tages ], [ Gonepteryx rhamni ], [ Lycaena hippothoe ], [ Lycaena virgaureae ], [ Nymphalis antiopa ], [ Pyrgus malvae ] Johnson Johnson, T. With the Plants on which they feed. Johnson Johnson, T. Johnson Johnson, E. Hypochiona, Ramb. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Plebejus argus ssp.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Polyommatus icarus ssp. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Polyommatus icarus ssp. Kirby Kirby, W. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Cupido argiades ], [ Lampides boeticus ], [ Lasiommata megera ], [ Pieris brassicae ], [ Pieris rapae ], [ Thymelicus lineola ] Kirby Kirby, W. This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Danaus plexippus ] Kirby Kirby, W. Kloet Kloet, G.

Handbooks for the identification of British insects. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Danaus : Vol. Knoch Knoch, A. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Satyrium w-album : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Erebia epiphron : Vol.

This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [ Parahipparchia , p. Lang Lang, H. Lanktree Lanktree, P. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Parnassius apollo , pp. This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [ Papilionidae : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Parnassius : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [ Hesperiidae : Vol.

This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Phengaris arion : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [ Lycaenidae : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Carterocephalus : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Arethusana : Vol.

This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [ Aglais urticae ], [ Apatura iris ], [ Aphantopus hyperantus ], [ Argynnis adippe ], [ Argynnis aglaja ], [ Argynnis paphia ], [ Aricia agestis ], [ Aricia artaxerxes ], [ Boloria selene ], [ Callophrys rubi ], [ Celastrina argiolus ], [ Coenonympha pamphilus ], [ Coenonympha tullia ], [ Colias hyale ], [ Cupido minimus ], [ Cyaniris semiargus ], [ Euphydryas aurinia ], [ Hesperia comma ], [ Hipparchia semele ], [ Iphiclides podalirius ], [ Issoria lathonia ], [ Lasiommata megera ], [ Lycaena dispar ], [ Lycaena phlaeas ], [ Lycaena virgaureae ], [ Maniola jurtina ], [ Melanargia galathea ], [ Nymphalis polychloros ], [ Phengaris arion ], [ Pieris napi ], [ Pontia daplidice ], [ Pyrgus malvae ], [ Pyronia tithonus ], [ Vanessa cardui ] Linnaeus Linnaeus, C.

Edition This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Papilio , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Colias palaeno , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Chazara briseis , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Boloria dia : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Pyronia tithonus , p.

Lucas Lucas, W. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Coenonympha tullia , p. This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [ Pieris napi ssp. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Carterocephalus palaemon : Vol.

AURELIAN LEGACY: British Butterflies and Their Collectors

Massey Massey, H. Mead-Briggs Mead-Briggs, M. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Argynnis cybele : Vol. This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [ Melanargia : Vol.

Merrin Merrin, J. Meyrick Metric, E. This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [ Parnassius phoebus : Vol. Wallace writes the following about his capture of this species in The Malay Archipelago : "My collection of butterflies was not large; but I obtained some rare and very handsome insects, the most remarkable being the Ornithoptera Brookeana, one of the most elegant species known This species, which was then quite new and which I named after Sir James Brooke, was very rare.

It was seen occasionally flying swiftly in the clearings, and now and then settling for an instant at puddles and muddy places, so that I only succeeded in capturing two or three specimens.. He writes the following about his capture of the male of this species Wallace, :. When I took it out of my net, and opened its gorgeous wings, I was nearer fainting with delight and excitement than I have ever been in my life; my heart beat violently, and the blood rushed to my head, leaving a headache for the rest of the day.

The insect surpassed my expectations, being, though allied to Priamus, perfectly new, distinct, and of a most gorgeous and unique colour; it is a fiery golden orange, changing, when viewed obliquely, to opaline-yellow and green. It is, I think, the finest of the Ornithoptera, and consequently the finest butterfly in the world? This specimen may in fact be the first one he collected - the one mentioned above. This species was named from a single male Wallace collected in the Aru Islands and he collected one other specimen, also male, in Bacan Island Wallace, a. Hewitson said:.

Wallace-are from New Guinea, and form part of the finest collection of insects which has, perhaps, ever reached us from the East. Many species which have only been known to us in England by the figures in the French Voyages, and many more which have never before been seen in Europe, will now enrich our collections: and I am sure that all who derive pleasure from the sight of these beautiful things will join me in expressing our obligation to Mr. Wallace for the delight he has afforded us. Pericles' Swallowtail Butterfly Papilio pericles Wallace, a: Collected by Wallace on Timor Island.

Male Papilio pericles from Wallace, a. Left: Thyca ninus underside from Wallace, ; Right: Malaysian stamp featuring this species. Collected by Wallace on Bacan Island, Indonesia. This species is also found on Halmahera and Obi islands. The wingspan of this species is about 9cm. Lithograph of Drusilla domitilla from Hewitson, Taenaris domitilla? Weda Bay, Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Copyright George Beccaloni. Wallace collected a single specimen of this species in Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia.

In The Malay Archipelago he writes:. It was large, handsome, and quite new to me, and I got close to it before it flew away. I then observed that it had been settling on the dung of some carnivorous animal. Thinking it might return to the same spot, I next day after breakfast took my net, and as I approached the place was delighted to see the same butterfly sitting on the same piece of dung, and succeeded in capturing it. It was an entirely new species of great beauty, and has been named by Mr.

Hewitson Nymphalis calydona. I never saw another specimen of it, and it was only after twelve years had elapsed that a second individual reached this country from the northwestern part of Borneo. Hewitson [a] wrote "This glorious butterfly is beyond description It is one of the many beautiful new species sent home by Mr. Wallace, who, after suffering shipwreck, and seeing his South American collections burned on board, is now exploring the Indian islands.

Illustration of Nymphalis calydonia from Hewitson, [a]. Discovered by Wallace in Sarawak, Borneo and named by Boulenger many years later not based on a specimen Wallace collected, however. Wallace writes the following about his capture of this species in The Malay Archipelago :. He assured me that he had seen it come down in a slanting direction from a high tree, as if it flew. On examining it, I found the toes very long and fully webbed to their very extremity, so that when expanded they offered a surface much larger than the body This is, I believe, the first instance known of a 'flying frog,' and it is very interesting to Darwinians as showing that the variability of the toes which have been already modified for purposes of swimming and adhesive climbing, have been taken advantage of to enable an allied species to pass through the air like the flying lizard.

The watercolour below was painted by Wallace in Sarawak and was used as the basis of the woodcut illustration of this species in The Malay Archipelago. Cranbrook et al. It may have been collected in August , when Wallace and his assistant Charles Allen went on a collecting trip up a branch of the Sadong river. Here the landing place was a bridge of rickety poles, over a considerable distance of water; and I thought it safer to leave my cask of arrack securely placed in the fork of a tree.

To prevent the natives from drinking it, I let several of them see me put in a number of snakes and lizards; but I rather think this did not prevent them from tasting it. Copyright Natural History Museum, London. Male Gonocephalus liogaster. Gunong Gading National Park, Sarawak, Described by Wallace from a single specimen from Sarawak, Borneo collected in This species is also found on Sumbawa Island.

This curious species was discovered by Wallace on Halmahera Island, Indonesia. In The Malay Archipelago he wrote:. It is the handsomest bird of the genus, being richly banded with reddish brown on the back and wings; and it differs from the other species in its habits. It frequents the forests of the interior, and comes down to the sea-beach to deposit its eggs, but instead of making a mound, or scratching a hole to receive them, it burrows into the sand to the depth of about three feet obliquely downwards, and deposits its eggs at the bottom.

It then loosely covers up the mouth of the hole, and is said by the natives to obliterate and disguise its own footmarks leading to and from the hole, by making many other tracks and scratches in the neighbourhood. It lays its eggs only at night, and at Bouru a bird was caught early one morning as it was coming out of its hole, in which several eggs were found. All these birds seem to be semi-nocturnal, for their loud wailing cries may be constantly heard late into the night and long before daybreak in the morning.

The eggs are all of a rusty red colour, and very large for the size of the bird, being generally three or three and a quarter inches long, by two or two and a quarter wide. They are very good eating, and are much sought after by the natives. Sulawesi Myna Basilornis celebensis Gray, Collected by Wallace on Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. Lithograph of Basilornis celebensis from Wallace, On the ornithology of Ceram and Waigiou. Ibis 3 11 : Soon after discovering this magnificent bird on Bacan Island, Indonesia, in October , Wallace wrote to his agent Stevens:.

I had a good mind to keep it a secret but I cannot resist telling you, I have got here a new Bird of Paradise!! When I can get a couple of pairs I will send them overland to see what a new Bird of Paradise will really fetch. Had I seen the bird in Ternate I would never have believed it came from here , so far out of the hitherto supposed region of the Paradiseidae.

I consider it the greatest discovery I have yet made John Gould wrote in that this species "…must be regarded as one of the finest of Mr. Wallace writes the following about his capture of this species in The Malay Archipelago : "I obtained here eight species of Kingfishers; among which was a very beautiful new one, named by Mr. Gould, Halcyon fulgidus. It was found always in thickets, away from water, and seemed to feed on snails and insects picked up from the ground after the manner of the great Laughing Jackass of Australia.

Birds of Asia , vol. Collected by Wallace on the Aru Islands, Indonesia. It is also found on New Guinea. In The Malay Arichipelago Wallace explains how he obtained his specimens of this species:.

Butterflies - Biodiversity Heritage Library

They shoot all sorts of birds, as well as pigs and kangaroos occasionally, and thus have a tolerably good supply of meat to eat with their vegetables. The result of this better living is superior healthiness, well-made bodies, and generally clear skins. They brought me numbers of small birds in exchange for beads or tobacco, but mauled them terribly, notwithstanding my repeated instructions. When they got a bird alive they would often tie a string to its leg, and keep it a day or two, till its plumage was so draggled and dirtied as to be almost worthless.

1634 and all that

One of the first things I got from them was a living specimen of the curious and beautiful racquet-tailed kingfisher. Seeing how much I admired it, they afterwards brought me several more, which were all caught before daybreak, sleeping in cavities of the rocky banks of the stream. My hunters also shot a few specimens, and almost all of them had the red bill more or less clogged with mud and earth. This indicates the habits of the bird, which, though popularly a king-fisher, never catches fish, but lives on insects and minute shells, which it picks up in the forest, darting down upon them from its perch on some low branch.

Lithograph of Tanysiptera hydrocharis from Sharpe's A Monograph of the Alcedinidae: or, Family of Kingfishers. Named by Wallace from specimens from the Sula Islands, Indonesia. It is also found on Sulawesi but the one specimen Wallace had from there "…was carried away by a rat, while drying, and was never recovered. Sula Hanging-Parrot Loriculus sclateri Wallace, a: In My Life Wallace writes:.

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