This finding is consistent with results reported by Cawunder and Hugh-Jones 39 and by Kelman , 40 yet differs from those reported by Strand et al. Sixty-six percent of the sample had symptoms suggesting they may be mildly to moderately depressed. The present study included over 15 times the number of participants from 33 different veterinary medical schools. Thus, it is likely that the result reported here is more representative of the veterinary medical student population.
Gender —The female students in this study scored significantly higher on the depression inventory than males across all 4 years of study. This result is consistent with findings among professional students indicating that women experience higher levels of depression than men while in school. Year —Rates of depression were highest in year 2 and year 3 and lowest in year 1 and year 4.
These rates of depression mirror the rates of stress found in the present study, which is further support for the hypothesis that some years of veterinary medical school are experienced as more stressful than others. Since chronic stress has been shown to lead to depression, 42 it makes sense that if women are already feeling high levels of stress when entering veterinary medical school, they are also more likely to experience high levels of depression.
We found a strong correlation between stress and depression, which is consistent with the available literature. Source of stress was an important predictor of depression. Given the intensity and rigor of veterinary medical education, it is not surprising that the Academic Subscale items predicted depression scores across all 4 years of veterinary medical training.
Also logical was the finding that items on the Clinical Graduation Subscale predicted depression more strongly in students' final year of training than in the previous 3 years. Curious, however, was the result that the Negative Evaluation Subscale was not a significant predictor of stress, as might be expected from Kent-Arce's model.
Given the ongoing nature of evaluation during veterinary medical training, one would likely expect to find that fears of negative evaluation would contribute to negative emotions among students. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of stress caused by negative evaluation fears.
The results of this study indicated that veterinary medical students suffer from high levels of stress and symptoms of depression throughout all 4 years of study. Further, the severity of stress and depression differs by gender, with females experiencing higher levels than males throughout all 4 years of training. Moreover, differences by year suggest that years 2 and 3 are most distressing and years 1 and 4 are least. It is logical that year 3 would be experienced as most stressful because students assume more clinical responsibility e.
This study also revealed a correlation between stress and depression. Finally, stress predicted depression, and the type of stress was differentially predictive for some years of the sample. As results of this study indicated that many students experience at least moderate levels of stress and depression, there are several implications for training and practice. Primarily, interventions should be targeted to meet the needs of all veterinary medical students, in particular females and students in years 2 and 3.istra-lumber.ru/img/2019-04-24/2073-goroskop-raka.php
Stress and Emotion: Anxiety, Anger and Curiosity, Volume 17: v. 17 (Stress and Emotion Series)
Moreover, as these subgroups are at higher risk, it is prudent to examine and reduce barriers to accessing mental health services. Despite its strengths, several limitations of this study can be identified. The sample employed in this study was not random and therefore carries risk of selection bias. While invitations were sent to all 33 schools of veterinary medicine, anonymous reporting procedures precluded our knowledge of how well the population of training programs was represented.
In addition, all measures in this study were self-reported and the data were collected simultaneously rather than over a series of data collection events. Finally, it is inherently difficult to conclude whether veterinary medical students experience higher levels of stress than other professional or college students due to the lack of consistency across studies in definition and measurement of stress.
This study points to several directions for future research to better understand the relationship between stress and depression among veterinary medical students. First, to assess if veterinary medical students experience higher levels of stress than their peers in other professional programs, future researchers may want to collect independent comparison groups of multiple professional student populations, including veterinary medical students.
Further, development of a standardized stress assessment would allow for such investigation. Future research should also seek to better understand the types of stressors that lead to depression for these students, such as major life events that have been shown to lead to depression e. Finally, several gaps in the current literature on the mental health of veterinary medical students could be addressed through a large cohort study to better understand the differences in students' levels of stress and depression depending on their year in the program.
Such a study could also explore the effectiveness of services aimed at reducing stress and depression.
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Key words student health , well-being , mental health , stress , depression. Stress, Depression, and Veterinary Medical Training. Implications, Limitations, and Future Directions. Article History Published in print: 1 February Downloaded 1, times. Connect with JVME. Volume: 35, Issue: 4, pp.
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Name each one you can. Listen without judging to what the emotion is telling you. Think through the best way to proceed in the moment. Or below The Triangle, in a calm state of peace and openheartedness - where we all hope to spend much more time. The state below The Triangle is accessed by "listening" to what the core emotion of the moment is telling us, by honoring what it says and by letting the associated body sensations move through freely until they naturally subside.
Core emotions are wavelike in nature: rising then ebbing.
In my blog , book and articles , I use stories, tips, practical experiments as well as discussion of neuroscience and much more to share specifics and How To's. Here's a quick How To Overview to give you an idea of the basics I'll expand on in my blog:.
Example of The Change Triangle in Action:. I use The Change Triangle frequently myself to feel better. Here is a recent example from my own experience:. Today I am anxious about writing a blog. I feel fluttering in my chest and my stomach is all bubbly-feeling. Because I don't like feeling my anxiety, I'm avoiding it by having negative thoughts like "maybe I can't do this" and I'm obsessing about an unrelated phone call I have to make. This initial move from emotions to defense largely happens unconsciously and automatically.
This is an example of me moving from the top right corner of The Change Triangle where anxiety and other inhibitory emotions are located, to the top left of The Change Triangle where defenses are located. I do NOT want to feel my anxiety! Once I notice my negative thoughts "I can't do this! This is key! My goal is to connect to my Self on a deep level and stop listening to those negative thoughts that I created to avoid my feelings. To deal with my anxious feelings, I take long deep breaths as I focus on the physical feeling inside.
I focus on the physical feeling of my anxiety with a stance of compassion and curiosity versus fear and judgment. Sometimes the core emotion I'm experiencing is obvious. Other times, it's hard to figure out. Here's how:. My attention is still in my body - below my neck. I ask myself, "Is there sadness there? Is there anger?
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