The founder of the sect is said to have been an Armenian by the name of Constantine ,  who hailed from Mananalis , a community near Samosata. A Gnostic and Manichaean sect.http://server1.ttexdon.com/wp-content/2019-09-08/1022-chat-para-conocer.php
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Founded in the 4th century by Priscillian , derived from the Gnostic - Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus. Priscillian was put to death by the emperor Gratian for the crime of magic. Increased during the 5th century despite efforts to stop it. In the 6th century, Priscillianism declined and died out soon after the Synod of Braga in A Gnostic sect from around AD. The Naassenes claimed to have been taught their doctrines by Mariamne , a disciple of James the Just.
Dealt as heresy by Hippolytus of Rome. Belief that the snake in the Garden of Eden Satan was an agent of the true God and brought knowledge of truth to man via the fall of man. Sect is founded around the Apocalypse of Adam. Belief that the serpent who tempted Adam and Eve was a hero, and that the God who forbade Adam and Eve to eat from the tree of knowledge is the enemy. Gnostic sect was founded by Ex-Catholic Bishop Valentinus. Considered heresy by Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis. Any view which holds that Christians are freed by grace from obligations of any moral law.
St Paul had to refute a charge of this type made by opponents because of his attitude to the Mosaic Law Romans . Some gnostics e. Ophites and Nicolaitans taught that since matter was opposed to the spirit, the body was unimportant. Similar views were found among some anabaptists in the sixteenth century as a consequence of justification by faith and later among some sects in seventeenth century England.
Few groups [ who? Belief that God has human form anthropomorphism and that one ought to celebrate Jesus' death during the Jewish Passover quartodecimanism. The First Council of Nicaea condemned quartodecimanism in Cyril of Alexandria condemned anthropomorphism at his Adversus Anthropomorphites.
Outlawed by Emperor Honorius in Donatism often spoken of as a "schism" rather than a "heresy"   .
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Donatists were rigorists, holding that the church must be a church of saints, not sinners, and that sacraments administered by traditores were invalid. They also regarded martyrdom as the supreme Christian virtue and regarded those that actively sought martyrdom as saints. Named for their second leader Donatus Magnus. Condemned by Pope Melchiades. Donatists were a force at the time of Saint Augustine of Hippo and disappeared only after the Arab conquest.
A Jewish sect that insisted on the necessity of following Jewish law and rites ,  which they interpreted in light of Jesus' expounding of the Law. Justin Martyr considered them heretical at Dialogue with Trypho the Jew chapter xlvii. In , Epiphanius records the settlement of Ebionites on Cyprus, later Theodoret of Cyrrhus reported that they were no longer present there. Belief that: The essence ousia of the Trinity could be perceived by the carnal senses. The Threefold God transformed himself into a single hypostasis substance in order to unite with the souls of the perfect.
God has taken different forms in order to reveal himself to the senses. Only such sensible revelations of God confer perfection upon the Christian. The state of perfection, freedom from the world and passion, is attained solely by prayer, not through the church or sacraments. Originating in Mesopotamia , they spread to Asia Minor and Thrace. The group might have continued for several centuries, influencing the Bogomils of Bulgaria, the Bosnian church, the Paterenes and Catharism.
The belief that icons are idols and should be destroyed. From late in the seventh century onwards some parts of the Greek Church reacted against the veneration of icons. The policy continued under his successors till about Later Leo V launched a second attempt which continued till the death of the emperor Theophilus in Condemned by Nicea II in which regulated the veneration. Leo III may have been motivated by the belief that the veneration of icons, particularly in the excessive form it often took, was the chief obstacle to the conversion of Jews and Muslims. An Early Christian dualist belief system.
Marcionists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament. This belief was in some ways similar to Gnostic Christian theology, but in other ways different. Originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year Many early apologists, such as Tertullian on his Adversus Marcionem year condemned Marcionism. Marcionism continued in the West for years, although Marcionistic ideas persisted much longer. The beliefs of Montanism contrasted with orthodox Christianity in the following ways: The belief that the prophecies of the Montanists superseded and fulfilled the doctrines proclaimed by the Apostles.
The encouragement of ecstatic prophesying. The view that Christians who fell from grace could not be redeemed. A stronger emphasis on the avoidance of sin and church discipline, emphasizing chastity, including forbidding remarriage.
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Some of the Montanists were also " Quartodeciman ". Named for its founder Montanus , Montanism originated at Hierapolis. It spread rapidly to other regions in the Roman Empire during the period before Christianity was generally tolerated or legal. The churches of Asia Minor excommunicated Montanists. Although the orthodox mainstream Christian church prevailed against Montanism within a few generations, labeling it a heresy , the sect persisted in some isolated places into the 8th century.
Belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. The theology was later developed by C a elestius and Julian of Eclanum into a complete system. Pelagianism was attacked in the Council of Diospolis  and condemned in at the Council of Carthage  and the decision confirmed at the Council of Ephesus in A rejection of Pelagianism which held that Augustine had gone too far to the other extreme and taught that grace aided free-will rather than replacing it.
Condemned by the Council of Orange in which slightly weakened some of Augustine's more extreme statements. A Gnostic dualistic sect that was both Adoptionist and Manichaean. Their beliefs were a synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic Church reform movement. Catharism had its roots in the Paulician movement in Armenia and the Bogomils of Bulgaria, with a strong dualist influence against the physical world, regarded as evil, thus denied that Jesus could become incarnate and still be the son of God. First appeared in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Catharism had its roots in the Paulicians and the Bogomils with whom the Paulicians merged. Condemned by papal bull Ad abolendam. After several decades of harassment and re-proselytizing, and the systematic destruction of their scripture, the sect was exhausted and could find no more adepts. Free Spirit. Mixed mystical beliefs with Christianity.
Its practitioners believed that it was possible to reach perfection on earth through a life of austerity and spiritualism. They believed that they could communicate directly with God and did not need the Christian church for intercession. Small groups living mostly in Bohemia , now the Czech Republic , during the 14th and 15th centuries. Extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi , especially with regard to poverty , and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous , and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status.
Appeared in the 14th and 15th centuries, principally in Italy.
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According to Peter of Cluny , Henry's teaching is summed up as follows: Rejection of the doctrinal and disciplinary authority of the church; Recognition of the Gospel freely interpreted as the sole rule of faith; Refusal to recognize any form of worship or liturgy; and Condemnation of the baptism of infants, the Eucharist , the sacrifice of the Mass, the communion of saints, and prayers for the dead.
Henry of Lausanne lived in France in the first half of the 12th century. His preaching began around and he died imprisoned around In a letter written at the end of , St Bernard calls upon the people of Toulouse to extirpate the last remnants of the heresy. In some Henricians still remained in Languedoc , for Matthew Paris relates that a young girl, who gave herself out to be miraculously inspired by the Virgin Mary , was reputed to have converted a great number of the disciples of Henry of Lausanne. Belief that three, rather than four nails were used to crucify Christ and that a Roman soldier pierced him with a spear on the left, rather than right side.
Begun by Peter Waldo , a wealthy merchant who decided to give up all his worldly possessions and began to preach on the streets of Lyon in Waldensians endured near annihilation in the 17th century. Descendants of this movement still exist. Over time, the denomination joined the Genevan or Reformed branch of Protestantism. Protestantism . Protestant groups display a wide variety of different doctrines. However, the early Reformers all stressed the five solae 1 Sola scriptura "by Scripture alone" ; the conviction that only the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments should be used to form doctrine, in contradistinction to the Roman Catholic view that both Scripture and the magisterium of the Church set dogma.
Condemned by the Council of Trent , held in Trento , Italy from to Since the midth century, the attitude of the Catholic Church to Protestantism has changed, as evidenced by ecumenical relations with Protestant Churches. An 18th-century German movement directed towards the nationalizing of Catholicism, the restriction of the power of the papacy in favor of that of the episcopate, and the reunion of the dissident churches with Catholic Christendom.
Compare with Erastianism. The belief that civil authority — often the State's authority — over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Pope. A branch of Catholic thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent — It emphasized original sin , human depravity , the necessity of divine grace , and predestination.
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Join Join Today! Sponsored Content. We spend a lot of time trying to understand the differences between cultures. But what is the end-game? Also, as we see God through our own cultural lens and engage with people from other cultures, we begin to see the world the way God sees it!
Catechism of the Catholic Church - Man's Capacity for God
Explore three cultural frameworks and take a moment to add to this important research by taking the test yourself: theculturetest. Translations: English Portuguese Spanish. To embed on your site copy and paste the code in the box below. And notice that when you follow him you have him — you have him as the light of life. If you follow me, you have me. Notice the last phrase of verse The life Jesus has, and the life he shares with those who follow him, gives them light.
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The eyes of our hearts are opened, and divine light streams into our living spirits. And thus we have the light of life. The light that comes from new, spiritual, eye-opening life — the life that gives sight to the blind soul, eternal life giving eternal sight. The whole world is not being lightened — at least not yet. And where is that darkness? It is in the world and in our hearts. If there is going to be a light for the world, it will be Jesus.
It is Jesus or darkness. There is no third alternative. It means that the world was made for this light. This is not a foreign light. This is the light of the owner of the world.
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When this light comes, it not only makes sin plain as foreign and ugly, but it also makes everything good in the world shine with its full and true beauty. This world was made to be illumined by this light. This light of Christ is native to the world. In that day, all will be light. Jesus, the radiance of the Father, will fill the world, and everything will be beautiful with the light of Christ. In these glorious ways, Jesus is the light of the world. If you follow him now, you will have him as your light in advance of that great day. True, he will reveal your sins.
Which is a precious gift — like the fortunate early diagnosis of a deadly cancer. But even more, he will reveal all that is beautiful. He will be the light in which you see God — the light in which you see the history of redemption and the work of salvation.
He will be the light in which you see mountains and valleys and oceans and rivers and trees and animals and people. Nothing will be the same again when you have him as your light. Everything looks different in the light of Christ. Yes, even earthquakes and tsunamis and suffering and death.
Until his light fills the earth as the waters cover the sea — until it banishes sin and sickness and pain and earthquakes to the outer darkness — until then, even now, his light will help you bear the sorrows of darkness.
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It will be a soft glow to comfort you in your lonely room after the devastating loss. It will be a lamp on your troubled path. It will reveal the wise and loving face of God behind every frowning providence. And so I say with Jesus in John And this light will never go out. So, according to Paul, preaching is a means of conveying light to the darkened heart of men and women. So in both verses the light conveyed into the heart is the light of glory — the glory of Christ and the glory of God. But these are not really two different glories. In verse 4 Paul says it is the glory of Christ, who is the likeness of God.
And in verse 6 he says that the glory of God is in the face of Christ. This is no artificial or merely intellectual construction. It is precisely what I know to be true from my own experience as do many of you! You and I know from experience that the root conflict in the human soul is between two glories — the glory of the world and all the brief pleasures it can offer, versus the glory of God and all the eternal pleasures it can offer. These two glories compete for the allegiance, admiration, and delight of our hearts.
And the role of preaching is to display and depict and portray and exhibit the glory of God in such a way that its superior excellence and worth shine in your heart so that you are changed from degree of glory to another. That means that as a preacher I am constantly confronted with the question: How can I best portray the glory of God so that the greatest number of people will see it and be changed by it?
As I asked myself that question on the retreat two weeks ago, a new answer came to my mind. He made this penetrating comment: And the thought came that if it is true for man, as Scougal intended to say, surely it is true for God also: So I searched the Scriptures for several days seeking all those places that tell us what it is that God loves and enjoys and delights in and takes pleasure in and rejoices in.
The result is a plan to preach thirteen messages entitled the pleasures of God. May the Lord be pleased to send us a great revival of love and holiness and power as we look to him and pray earnestly over the next thirteen weeks. The first and most fundamental thing we can say about the pleasures of God is that he takes pleasure in his Son.
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